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Natal did first become a British possession. But a contest was still carried on for more that a twelvemonth longer through which the Dutch farmers strove to regain their independence, and it was not till the 8th of August, 1843, that the twenty-four members of the still existing Volksraad declared Her Majesty's Government to be supreme in Port Natal.


But the Dutchmen could hardly even yet be said to be beaten. They certainly were not contented to remain as British subjects. Very many of them passed again back over the Drakenberg mountains determined to free themselves from the British yoke, and located themselves in the districts either to the North or South of the Vaal river, although they did so far away from the ocean which is the only highway for bringing to them stores from other countries, and although they were leaving good low-lying fertile lands for a high arid veld the most of which was only fit for pastoral purposes. But they would there be, if not free from British rule,-for the Republics were not yet established,—far at any rate from British interference. If any people ever fought and bled for a land, they had fought and bled for Natal. But when they found they could not do what they liked with it, they "trekked" back and left it. And yet this people have shewn themselves to be generally ill-adapted for self-government, as I shall endeavour to shew when I come to speak of the Transvaal Republic, and altogether in want of some external force to manage for them their public affairs. Nothing perhaps is harder than to set a new Government successfully afloat, and the Dutch certainly have shewn no aptitude for the task either in Natal or in the Transvaal.

It is not to be supposed that all the Dutch went, or that they went all at once. In some parts of the Colony

they are still to be found prospering on their lands,— and some of the old names remain. But the country strike: the stranger as being peculiarly English, in opposition to much of the Cape Colony which is peculiarly Dutch. In one district of Natal I came across a congregation of Germans, with a German minister and a German church service, and German farmers around, an emigration from Hanover having been made to the spot. But I heard of no exclusively Dutch district. The traveller feel: certain that he will not require the Dutch language & he moves about, and he recognises the Dutchman is a foreigner in the land when he encounters him. In the Transvaal, in the Orange Free State, and in many parts of the Western districts of the Cape Colony, -even in Capetown itself,-he feels himself to be among a Dutch peopl. He knows as a fact that the Dutch in South Africa ar more numerous than the English. But in Natal he is o English soil, among English people,— with no more saour of Holland than he has in London when he chances to meet a Dutchman there. And yet over the whole Suth African continent there is no portion of the land fo which the Dutchman has fought and bled and dared an suffered as he has done for Natal. As one reads the sary one is tempted to wish that he had been allowed to ound his Natalia, down by the sea shore, in pleasant lars, where he would not have been severed by distance ad difficulties of carriage from the comforts of life,-from imber for instance with which to floor his rooms, and wed to burn his bricks, and iron with which to make his loughs.

But the Dutch who wnt did not go at once, nor did the English who came cne at once. It is impossible not to confess that what 'th the Home Government in Downing Street and what ith the Governors who suc

ceeded each other at the Cape there was shilly-shalying as to adopting the new Colony. The province was taken up in the manner described in 1843, but no Governor was appointed till 1845. Major Smith, who as Captain Smith had suffered so much with his little army, vas the military commander during the interval, and the Dutch Volksraad continued to sit. Questions as to the tenure of land naturally occupied the minds of all who emained. If a Boer chose to stay would he or would le not be allowed to occupy permanently the farm, pobably of 6,000 acres which he had assumed to himself? And then, during this time, the tribes who had fled in fear of the Dutch or who had been scattered by th Zulu King, flocked in vast hordes into the country when they had been taught to feel that they would be safe under British protection. It is said that in 1843 there were not above 3,000 natives in all Natal, but that with three or four years 80,000 had crowded in. Now the umbers amount to 320,000. Of course they spread themselves over the lands which the Dutch had called thir own, and the Dutch were unable to stop them. I December 1845 Mr. West was appointed the first Govrnor of Natal, and attempts were made to arrange maters between the remaining Boers and the Zulus. A ommission was appointed to settle claims, but it coud do but little,—or nothing. Native locations were aranged; that is large tracts of land were given over to the Natives. But this to the Boers was poison. To thm the Natives were as wild beasts, and wild beasts whm they with their blood and energy had succeeded in epelling. Now the wild beasts were to be brought bak under the auspices of the British Government!

In 1847 Andrias Pretoriu was the dominant leader of the Natal Boers and he went on a pilgrimage to Sir

Henry Pottenger who was then Governor in the Cape Colony. Sir Henry Pottenger would not see him,-required him to put down what he had to say in writing, which is perhaps the most heartbreaking thing which any official man can do to an applicant. What if our Cabinet Ministers were to desire deputations to put down their complaints in writing? Pretorius, who afterwards became a great rebel against British authority and the first President of the Transvaal Republic, returned furious to Pieter Maritzburg, having however first put down "what he had to say" in very strong writing. Sir Henry was then leaving the Colony and answered by referring the matter to his successor. Pretorius flew to the public press and endeavoured to instigate his fellow subjects to mutiny by the indignant vehemence of his language. When the news of his failure with Sir Henry Pottenger reached the Boers in Natal, they determined upon a further wholesale and new expatriation. They would all "trek" and they did trek, on this occasion into the district between the Orange and the Vaal,-where we shall have to follow them in speaking of the origin of the two Dutch Republics. In this way Natal was nearly cleared of Dutchmen in the year 1848.

It all happened so short a time ago that many of the actors in those early days of Natal are still alive, and some of my readers will probably remember dimly something of the incidents as they passed;-how Sir Harry Smith, who succeeded Sir Henry Pottenger as Governor of the Cape, became a South African hero, and somewhat tarnished his heroism by the absurdity of his words. The story of Retief hardly became known to us in England with all its tragic horrors, but I myself can well remember how unwilling we were to have Natal, and how at last it was borne in upon us that Natal had to be

taken up by us,-perhaps as a fourth rate Colony, with many regrets, much as the Fiji islands have been taken up since. The Transvaal, inferior as it is in advantages and good gifts, has just now been accepted with very much greater favour. The salary awarded to a Governor may perhaps best attest the importance of a new Colony. The Transvaal has begun with £3,000 a year. A poor £2,500 is even still considered sufficient for the much older Colony of Natal.

Since 1848 Natal has had its history, but not one that has peculiarly endeared it to the Mother Country. In 1849 a body of English emigrants went out there who have certainly been successful as farmers, and who came chiefly I think from the County of York. I do not know that there has since that been any one peculiar influx of English, though of course from time to time Englishmen have settled there, some as farmers, more probably as traders, small or large. In 1850 Mr. Pine succeeded Mr. West as second Governor,-a gentleman who has again been Governor of the same Colony as Sir Benjamin Pine, and who has had to encounter,- somewhat unfairly, as I think,—the opprobrium incident to the irrational sympathy of a certain class at home in the little understood matter of Langalibalele. Langalibalele has, however, been so interesting a South African personage that I must dedicate a separate chapter to his history. In 1853 Dr. Colenso was appointed Bishop of Natal, and by the peculiarity of his religious opinions has given more notoriety to the Colony,-has caused the Colony to be more talked about,—than any of its Governors or even than any of its romantic incidents. Into religious opinion I certainly shall not stray in these pages. In my days I have written something about clergymen but never a word about religion. No doubt shall be thrown by me

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